Transition to the Australia New Zealand Therapeutic Products Agency (ANZTPA)

The Treaty

The Government of Australia and the Government of New Zealand (referred to in this Agreement as “the Parties”):

CONSCIOUS of their geographic proximity, long-standing friendship, and close historic, political, and economic relationship;

RECOGNISING the development of that relationship through the Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement done at Canberra on 28 March 1983, and subsequent arrangements and agreements developed within that framework;

NOTING in particular the Arrangement relating to Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition signed by the Australian Prime Minister, Premiers and Chief Ministers on 14 June 1996 and by the New Zealand Prime Minister on 9 July 1996, and the cooperation programme in relation to regulatory requirements for therapeutic products pursued under the auspices of that Arrangement;

AWARE that this relationship will be significantly strengthened and that both countries will benefit through the development of a joint Trans-Tasman scheme for the regulation of therapeutic products;

ACKNOWLEDGING their commitment to securing trade liberalisation and an outward-looking approach to trade;

CONSCIOUS of their obligations under the Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization done at Marrakesh on 15 April 1994;

AFFIRMING their shared commitment to safeguarding public health and safety through a regulatory regime consistent with international best practice for the regulation of the quality, safety, and efficacy or performance of therapeutic products; and

DESIRING therefore to establish a joint scheme for the regulation of therapeutic products in both Australia and New Zealand, to be administered by a single world-class agency responsible to both Parties;

HAVE agreed as follows:

Statement of Intent

Australia New Zealand Therapeutic Products Agency 77On 20 June 2011, the Prime Ministers of Australia and New Zealand reaffirmed their commitment to the establishment of the Australia New Zealand Therapeutic Products Agency (ANZTPA) to administer a joint regulatory scheme for therapeutic products. This reaffirmation acknowledged that the New Zealand Government will introduce a separate scheme to regulate certain natural health products in the New Zealand market.

Prime Ministers have agreed that a three stage approach over a period of up to 5 years will be adopted to progressively achieve this goal by mid-2016. The threestages involve the two countries’ regulators, Australia’s Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) and New Zealand’s Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority (Medsafe):

Commencing a program of Business to Business (B2B) projects and work-sharing. This will enable the separate regulatory systems of each country to be supported with single sets of data, expertise and internal administrative advisory processes. Improved regulatory practices will lead to immediate benefits including improved public health outcomes and better value for money for industry and governments with greater efficiency in regulatory processes.

Establishing a Single Entry Point for industry and agreeing a common trans-Tasman regulatory framework. While each country will retain its own regulator and continue to make its own regulatory decisions in this stage, business will benefit from a significant reduction in red tape with only one set of requirements to operate in two countries. The creation of the new world class regulatory framework will further increase the public health benefit for consumers, reduce the regulatory burden for industry and enhance the reputation of New Zealand and Australian therapeutic products on the world market.

Increasingly Integrate Business Operations, including single operational and decision making mechanisms. Following passage of implementing legislation, ratification of the Treaty and final confirmation of arrangements, the separate national regulators will be absorbed into the ANZTPA. At this time New Zealand will be able to decide whether to maintain its separate scheme to regulate certain health products, or bring those products under ANZTPA.

This statement of intent reflects a significant step in the lengthy process since the Treaty between Australia and New Zealand was signed in 2003 envisaging all therapeutic products being regulated under a joint regulatory scheme by a single regulatory agency.

The agreement to establish a single Australia New Zealand Therapeutic Products Agency is also another important step forward in the development of closer economic relations between Australia and New Zealand. In addition, deliverables from this project such as regulatory harmonisation will strengthen the broader relationship between the two countries and benefit industry in both countries.

Arrangements of Governance

Australia New Zealand Therapeutic Products Agency 77The project to establish ANZTPA is a complex multi-year project requiring effective governance arrangements. When committing to the project in June 2011, the Australian and New Zealand Prime Ministers agreed to establish two key joint governance bodies:

a Ministerial Council, including Australian and New Zealand Health Ministers and other relevant ministers, to oversight implementation; and
a Transition Agency, resourced by both Australia and New Zealand, to advise the Ministerial Council and drive implementation of the scheme.
A number of other entities have been set up to support the roles of the Ministerial Council and Transition Agency. These are:

The Secretaries’ Group (comprising the CEOs of the New Zealand Ministry of Health and the Australian Department of Health) which is a joint entity driving outcomes to give effect to the Treaty and the Statement of Intent, as well as providing support, advice and recommendations to the Ministerial Council.

A Trans-Tasman Senior Officials’ Group (TTSOG), which is a formal body with membership drawn from the relevant policy agencies in both countries. Membership of this group includes officials from the Australian Department of Health, the New Zealand Ministry of Health, the New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development, the Australian and New Zealand Departments of Prime Minister and Cabinet, the Australian and New Zealand Treasuries, the Australian Department of Finance and Deregulation, the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the Australian Attorney-General’s Department and the New Zealand Ministry of Justice. The Head of the Transition Agency and Heads from both Regulators are also members of the TTSOG. Other relevant officers are co-opted where consideration of issues falls within their area of responsibility.

On 10 December 2003, the Australian and New Zealand Governments signed an agreement to establish a joint regulatory scheme for therapeutic products.

The joint scheme will regulate medicines (including complementary medicines) and medical devices and is expected to come into force on the passage of legislation and ratification of the treaty.

On this page

  • What is the project about?
  • Why are we establishing a trans Tasman therapeutic products agency?
  • What will form the basis of the new agency?
  • What will the agency do?
  • What are the advantages of having a trans Tasman therapeutic products agency?
  • How will the agency be set up?
  • Stakeholder consultation

What is the project about?

Australia New Zealand Therapeutic Products Agency The trans Tasman therapeutic products agency project has involved New Zealand and Australia giving consideration to establishing a joint agency to regulate therapeutic products (medicines, medical devices and complementary medicines/dietary supplements that have therapeutic uses) in both countries.

The decisions of the Australian and New Zealand Governments to establish a trans Tasman agency to regulate therapeutic products have moved the project into a new phase. This phase of the project sees the development of the final details of the regulatory framework and the legislation underpinning the joint agency, the treaty between Australia and New Zealand, and the transitional arrangements to create a new agency.

Text of the treaty: Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of New Zealand for the establishment of a joint scheme for the regulation of therapeutic products
Other documents relating to the treaty

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Why are we establishing a trans Tasman therapeutic products agency?
The key objectives in establishing the Agency are to:

Establish a trans Tasman regulatory scheme for therapeutic products that will safeguard public health and safety in Australia and New Zealand by regulating therapeutic products and maintain an effective and sustainable regulatory capacity in both countries; and Resolve the special exemption for therapeutic products under the Trans Tasman Mutual Recognition Arrangement (TTMRA) in a manner that facilitates trans Tasman trade and enhances Closer Economic Relations between Australia and New Zealand.

The establishment of a trans Tasman agency is also likely to lead to closer cooperation between countries and regulators in the Asia-Pacific region.

Trans Tasman Mutual Recognition Arrangement

The TTMRA is an arrangement between the Australian Commonwealth, State and Territory governments and the government of New Zealand. The TTMRA seeks to remove regulatory barriers and facilitate trade between Australia and New Zealand.

The differences between the New Zealand and Australian systems for regulating therapeutic products were sufficient to necessitate a special exemption to the TTMRA that allowed officials time to assess options to resolve the need for a special exemption.

The options identified for resolving the special exemption were mutual recognition, permanent exemption and harmonisation of regulatory systems.

Australian and New Zealand Health Ministers agreed that harmonisation of regulatory systems was likely to be the best option. The establishment of a trans Tasman therapeutic products agency will deliver a harmonised approach with the flow on benefits of lowering trade barriers between Australia and New Zealand and enhancing CER.

Regulatory capacity

Australia New Zealand Therapeutic Products Agency Regulatory Impact Assessments undertaken by the New Zealand Institute of Economic Research (NZIER) in 2000 and 2002 confirmed that New Zealand’s current system for regulating therapeutic products is not sustainable. New Zealand does not have sufficient capacity in terms of technical expertise to continue to evaluate the risks and benefits of increasingly complex high risk products (such as medicines of biological origin). Such expertise is in demand internationally and is scarce in some disciplines. Australia may face a similar challenge to its regulatory capacity in the longer term.

What will form the basis of the new agency?

The new Agency will replace the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) and the New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority (Medsafe), and be accountable to the Australian and New Zealand Governments. It will be recognised in law in both Australia and New Zealand and assume responsibility for the regulatory functions currently undertaken in both countries.

What will the agency do?

The role of the Agency will be to safeguard public health and safety through regulation of the quality, safety and efficacy or performance of therapeutic products in both Australia and New Zealand.
The regulatory activities of the agency will include:
pre-market evaluation and assessment; product licensing; controls on manufacture; post-market monitoring and surveillance; and setting standards.

A risk-based approach will be taken so that the level of regulation is commensurate with the level of risk associated with the products.

What are the advantages of having a trans Tasman therapeutic products agency?

The Agency has a number of benefits for both countries. The Agency will: assist in creation of a single market for therapeutic products; facilitate trade and reduce compliance costs by replacing dual regulatory processes with harmonised regulatory requirements; strengthen each country’s regulatory capacity to meet a new wave of innovative therapeutic products which are being driven by emerging technologies and globalisation; and ensure consumers have early access to new products entering the market, while maintaining confidence in public health and safety.

How will the agency be set up?

The Agency will: have a distinct legal identity and be recognized in the legislation of both countries; be established, and operate, in accordance with key principles set out in Treaty between the two countries; be directly accountable to both Ministers and to both Parliaments; deliver common regulatory outcomes and have the authority to implement and enforce laws in both countries; operate subject to the ability of either country to depart from the joint regulatory scheme. This will apply in extraordinary circumstances, under agreed criteria and within agreed time frames and will include a process for the future resolution of issues that have led to a separate decision; and be subject to common regulatory review and appeal mechanisms that are suitable for therapeutic products and provide access for industry in both countries.

The Agency will be overseen by a two-member Ministerial Council comprising the New Zealand Minister of Health and the Australian Health Minister. The Agency will also have a five member Board. A Treaty will establish the Ministerial Council and the Board of the agency. The Board will be responsible for the strategic direction and financial management of the Agency. One of the Board members, the Managing Director, will be responsible for regulatory decisions about therapeutic products and for the day to day management of the Agency. The Board and the Managing Director will be appointed by the Ministerial Council.

The framework for the regulatory scheme administered by the Agency will be set up under the Treaty and implemented through Acts of Parliament in both countries, a single set of Rules made by the Ministerial Council, and technical Orders made by the Managing Director.

Accountability arrangements

It has been agreed that a fundamental requirement for the joint agency must be that the Agency has no lesser accountability to Ministers, Parliaments, industry and the public than is currently the case for Medsafe and the TGA. Work continues on further defining accountability requirements for the Agency, such as: procedures for appropriate stakeholder input into, and parliamentary scrutiny of, initial and subsequent legislation, including Rules and Orders; review of regulatory decisions; annual, corporate and financial planning; access to official information; privacy requirements; and human rights/anti-discrimination regimes.

Stakeholder consultation

Since 1998 there has been extensive consultation with industry, health professionals and consumer groups on the proposal to establish a joint therapeutic products agency. Consultation will continue with key stakeholders, especially on the final proposals for the establishment and implementation of a joint regulatory scheme.

Discussion documents and other reports and documents designed to keep stakeholders informed on developments towards the establishment of a joint agency can be found on this website. Stakeholders should regularly check the website for new information and updates on progress towards establishing the trans Tasman agency.

Reforming Water Consumption Usage In Faucets

Reducing Your Water Consumption

Everyone uses their sink at some point during the day. You have to whether it’s to wash your hands, fill a water dish for your pets, wash dishes or just get a drink, you turn on the faucet and then you turn it back off again when you’re done. But making sure you turn off that water is extremely important for your water consumption rate. If you’re not turning it off then you could be using a whole lot more water than you think you are and that’s hurting the environment.

Changing Your Water Consumption

Each time you turn your faucet on you’re using quite a bit of water, but that’s okay if you’re using the water. If you’re washing your hands or getting some water to work on your dinner that’s fine. But if you’re in the middle of brushing your teeth and just let the water run you’re actually wasting that water and that could be bad for people somewhere else in your area that don’t have enough water or even for the creatures that use that water wherever it’s originating from (like a lake or a stream).

You should always be checking if your faucets are off when you’re not using them and that means if you’re not using them at that exact moment. Don’t leave the water running while you run to grab more dishes or while you’re brushing your teeth. Instead, turn it off and back on again when you need it so you don’t waste as much water that could be used for other things (or other animals). After all, it’s not just your water. You can also visit to read kitchen faucet reviews to get information about the best faucets for you.

Checking for Leaks

Sometimes you may think you’re turning off your water but you’re actually not because there’s a problem with your pipes. You should always be checking to make sure you turn the faucet all the way off and look for any problems that might occur. If your faucet is leaking even though you turned it all the way off you want to get that fixed right away. On the other hand, it may not be leaking somewhere you can easily see.Reforming Water Consumption Usage In Faucets

If you aren’t sure about leaks or if there’s anything happening in your house follow the line. Look for any puddles or drips on the floor or in other areas of your house that the water line runs through. You may find something that you didn’t notice before. This is important because it keeps water from being wasted, but it’s also going to keep you from getting water damage in your home that you don’t even know is there.

Using water is something you have to do throughout the day, but conserving water is actually just as easy. You’re reforming water consumption usage in faucets, but you’re also going to still get what you and your family need when it comes to adequate water for your daily life. Don’t be afraid to use water when you need it, just make sure you’re not using water you don’t need, so opt for shorter showers, turning off the water while brushing your teeth and turning it off while washing dishes too.


What Do Researchers Say About the Usage of Pressure CookerModern pressure cookers can trace their history to the 1600s. Initially, these devices were quite unsafe. The Frenchman who invented the first pressure cookers was seeking to utilize the laws of physics that had just been discovered. However, they were prone to explosions and were eventually abandoned. The contraptions have been gaining popularity in the past few devices after falling off the grid for being too loud.

How Do They Work?

According to physics, water can only boil at a given temperature and at a given pressure. When pressure rises, the boiling point also tends to rise. When water boils, it begins to escape into the air as a gas. Thus, if one is living in high altitude areas, they suffer from low pressure. At this temperature, water boils at a lower temperature. In addition, it tends to escape much easier. The result is that food is not heated enough during cooking before the water escapes.

The pressure cooker works by creating a high-pressure environment in which to cook food. Because it is closed off, the water does not escape. The result is that it boils at a higher temperature. In addition, the high pressure means that the food will be heated much faster. This is because; the water with nowhere to go forces itself into the food. This means that food becomes more evenly cooked in just a short while. You should read some good pressure cooker reviews before making a buying decision and learn about various different types available.

What Do Researchers Think?

What Do Researchers Say About the Usage of Pressure Cooker

Anyone who is interested in eating nutrient rich meals should purchase one of these devices. They help to force water into the food. However, this water will usually contain other ingredients. These ingredients will make the food sweeter by combining everything in the food into one. The result is that one does not have to eat huge amounts to get nutrition. This makes it the perfect tool for people who want to lose weight. They will be able to eat their favorite meal and get the nutrition in small portions. This is great to feed the kids tasty and healthy meals. Most kids are unable to eat huge quantities of food. One can ensure they are getting the right nutrition even in small portions.

In terms of energy savings, this is the device of choice. In most instances, it requires a lot of energy to cook some meals .For instance, if one decided to cook raw beans, they would need to do a lot of boiling. This is especially so if one lives in high altitude areas. One can cook the same amount of food in a shorter time. It is an important consideration when the world is combating global warming.


All pressure cookers are similar in how they work. One should ensure that they check a pressure cooker’s safety feature when purchasing one. This is the most important consideration in purchasing a pressure cooker. Although they vary in terms of price, it is not always good to go for the cheapest ones. This increases the chances that one will not get the full experience of using pa pressure cooker.

The Technology Behind The Nano Membrane Toilet

An inexpensive, simple to maintain, a green toilet that utilizes no water and transforms human waste into clean water and electricity will have experimented in 2016, probably in Ghana, Africa. This toilet will be named as the Nano Membrane Toilet. This novel approach to managing human waste could assist some 2.3 billion people in the world who have no access to safe, clean toilets.

The Technology Behind the Nano Membrane Toilet

The magic of the Nano Membrane Toilet occurs when you close the cover. The base of the basin uses a rotation device to sweep the human waste into a sedimentation compartment, which assists block any odors from fleeing. Then the waste is filtered through a unique nanotech membrane that separates the molecules of the vaporized water from the rest of the human waste, assisting in preventing solids and pathogens from being carried by the water further.

Then, the vaporized water passes through to a compartment, which is filled with the nano-covered hydrophilic beads that assist the water vapor squeeze and fall into a gathering region below. This water is sufficiently pure to be used for farm irrigation and domestic washing.

The remaining solid waste and pathogens are then driven by an archimedean screw into a next chamber. This part of the plan is still being decided, but the existing plan is for the solid waste to be destroyed to change it into energy and ash. The energy will control the process of the nanomembrane filtration, with adequate left over to charge cellular phones or other small appliances.

The lone waste product of the entire process is ash from the flaming of solids, which is free from pathogens and rich in nutrients, and thus, it can be exploitable in farming. The Nano Membrane Toilet can handle the waste generated by families containing a maximum of 10 members. This latest technology in toilets aims to safe water consumption, as well.

Benefits of using the Nano Membrane Toilet

The Technology Behind The Nano Membrane ToiletAt present, over 650 million individuals in the world do not get access to hygienic water, and in excess of 2.3 billion people in the world do not have access to a secure, private toilet. Researchers all over the world are functioning to resolve this problem, but the state-of-the-art solutions, such as adding up to solar panels, are habitually very costly to be practical. For more solutions and toilet reviews visit

Sociological problems play a vital role, as well. As the infrastructure of the toilet deteriorates, individuals desire to go outside instead of a stinking room inside their home. This makes women susceptible to rape and generates further cleanliness and sanitation issues.

On the other hand, the Nano Membrane Toilet is dirt free, odorless and inspirational, and it would be capable of functioning in environments that lack external power, sewage, and water. Therefore, it will be an ideal toilet to work effectively and it will be quite interesting to see the way it functions in the field.

The plan is for the Nano Membrane Toilet to be rented to families through a local association, assisting in spreading the expenses to continue within the challenge of maintaining the charge of the toilet less than US 5 cents per individual per day.

If everything goes well, the Nano Membrane Toilet could also find its applications elsewhere, as well, such as the construction industry, military, yachts and external events.

Usage of Flat Iron for Healthy Hair


Finding the right flat iron for a particular hair is not easy. The task is made much harder due to the availability of different brands in the market today. Before purchasing a flat iron, it is good to establish the type of hair. People with curly hair will need a different flat iron from those who have thick coarse hair. There are different types of flat irons that can be used to maintain healthy hair.


This is one of the most popular materials for flat irons. It is mainly preferred since it is not expensive. It is also a great flat iron for straightening and smoothening hair at lower temperatures. Ceramic plates are very effective in elimination frizz, locking and restoring moisture, and smoothing hair.

Made from ionic technology, ceramic flat irons leave the hair looking and feeling healthier. It also results in hair that is frizz-free, shiny and light that reflects off with ease. It is long lasting and durable and best suited for people with straight, fine, and wavy-curly hair.

When looking for a ceramic flat iron, it is good to choose for the one specific for a hair type. For thick hair, the flat iron needs to be hotter in order to make the hair shiny and straight. This also minimizes hair damage. For more tips on what the best flat irons are too buy more usefull information visit Best Flat Iron Guide.

Tourmaline Flat Irons

Usage of Flat Iron for Healthy HairTourmaline flat irons come with prismatic crystals that have been crushed into a fine powder. These crystals help in smoothing the hair cuticle and prevent hair damage through emission of negative ions to counter the positive ions. The amount of heat applied can be increased thus creating a smoother surface. This reduces tugging and pulling.

These flat irons are naturally ionized. Therefore, when passed over hair, the material seals the hair. Sealing is very helpful in locking in moisture that is needed to eliminate dry, frizzy, and unmanageable hair. The user just needs to pass it over the hair once, resulting in hair that is smooth, perfectly straight, and shiny.

Tourmaline is among the new materials that are being used to produce flat irons. Through improvement in heat settings and design, these flat irons style the hair with just a single pass thus locking in the natural moisture of hair. This is a great option for people who have fine but coiled hair. Chances of it getting caught in the hair are less compared to ceramic flat irons.


These are among the widely used flat iron types in hair straightening today. The reason why many people prefer using flat irons with titanium plates is that titanium produces a high level of flatness, which is not possible with many other metals.

These flat irons allow a wide variation of settings. Therefore, they give the user a high level of control and less heat damage. It is a long-lasting tool for hair care due to its ability to resist corrosion and withstand high heat. It is perfect for many types of hair.

Titanium flat irons tend to be more expensive than ceramic plates. They are designed for the high-end market and those users who are looking for fewer frizzes and more heat. They are designed with wider plates, which help in speeding up the straightening process.


Flat irons help in hair straightening, leaving it healthy and shiny. When looking for a flat iron, it is good to consider the hair type and the material used to make the flat iron. Although there are many other flat irons in the market today, ceramic, tourmaline and titanium are the most preferred by professionals.

How Are Low Flow Shower Heads Good for the Environment?

It’s not for nothing that a lot of agencies and organizations that raise environmental awareness are also championing the installation of low flow shower heads in many households. After all, with the proven benefits that it has on conserving water, why shouldn’t it become the norm? With the fact that showering occupies a large part of the average water usage of most households (20-30%), wouldn’t it simply be logical to go for the alternative that offers optimum water-saving?

Low Flow Shower Heads Good for the Environment

Compared to standard shower heads, flow shower heads only have a maximum water flow rate of 2.0 GPM (gallons per minute), and some brands could even go lower than that. That is basically 0.5 GPM lower than standard shower heads. Many also offer unique features other than the low flow perk, which also, directly and indirectly, help in water conservation.

For one, a few brands feature a pause button, which gives you control on when to stop the water flow. Unlike turning a standard shower knob, though, the water is promptly stopped, and its temperature won’t change at the least bit once it’s restarted. There is also the fact that a lot of low flow shower heads also come with a shower timer, which as is readily evident from its name allows you set and adjust a time limit to everyone’s shower times. Once your time is close to expiring, you would often be sent a warning. If you don’t turn it off, the water flow would be significantly reduced to the point that it’s not ideal for showering anymore. This is particularly great for instilling discipline in water usage among consumers. Read more about different shower heads and how to choose the best shower head for you over at as they have both great articles and guides on different types of shower heads.

It also can’t be denied that waiting for their water to heat when running standard shower heads also causes people to waste precious amounts every day. This is not at all the case for most low-flow shower heads as some have a temperature gauge that controls the flow of water and keeps it at a minimum until it has reached the temperature you want.

The Benefits Do Not Stop There

Great quality shower head is important
Great quality shower head is important

Just imagine the billions of gallons of water that can be saved annually if many households would start adapting the use of low flow shower heads. The advantages are not limited to water conservation as well, since keeping showering times at optimum levels also means less consumption of energy too.

Understandably, many consumers question low flow shower heads and are readily turned off by the term “low flow”. After all, it does readily imply that you would be getting less water flow rate than what you’re normally used to while showering. Yes, older versions of these types of shower heads did have this problem (the water pressure tended to be so low that flows tend to become trickles instead); however, the ones that are being released nowadays have already addressed this issue. They easily remedy this problem by incorporating smaller apertures, which with the help of air are able to create stronger water pressures.

Taking these facts into consideration, there’s technically no other alibi that can be used against the use of low flow shower heads. For all the long-term benefits it has on not only the environment but to people in general as well, there’s no doubt that it’s become the best choice for all households around the world.

What Effect Does A Water Softener Have On Water?

Many people are under the misconception that hard water is unhealthy to drink, which is actually not the case. However, it can be a nuisance since the minerals it contains tend to build up on contact surfaces, damage appliances, clog pipes, and lower the effectiveness of detergents and soaps. While you do not have to worry about your health if you drink hard water, getting a water softening unit installed can help improve the quality of water for other purposes.

In fact, using a water softener can prove to be beneficial in several different ways. For instance:

  • Your cars, glassware, mirrors, plumbing fixtures, silverware, and tiles will become cleaner and shinier when washed.
  • Your skin will become cleaner and softer, and your hair will become smoother.
  • Cleaning will become easier and housework will be reduced as a result of lesser soap curds.
  • Less shampoo and soap will be used since soap with softer water will produce richer lather, and keep your hair healthy.
  • Clothes will be softened since the fabric will contain any hard minerals. Clothes will also last longer and white fabrics will be a lot whiter than before.
  • The life of water appliances, namely coffee machines, dishwashers, ice makers, laundry equipment and water heaters is preserved.
  • Since appliances will not be damaged and monthly energy bills will be lowered, you will end up saving money.

Soft Water & Sodium

Over the years, there have been concerns about hard levels and sodium in drinking water. However, according to the World Health Organisation, people should decide whether or not they want to drink softened water based on whether or not they like its taste. WHO have not drawn any firm conclusions on the supposed adverse effects of sodium that soft drinking water might contain.

Moreover, most of the softened water available in developing countries is safe to drink, even if you drink it over the long term. However, it is true that the levels of sodium in the water determines how safe and suitable it is for drinking, and as per regulations, sodium levels must not be any higher than 200 mg/l.

What Effect Does A Water Softener Have On Water?

What Effect Does A Water Softener Have On WaterBasically, once a water softener is installed, the hardness minerals in water are replaced with sodium. So, if your water supply contains more hard minerals, then the softened water is likely to contain a higher level of salt. However, even then the levels of sodium in softened water remain well within the limit of 200 mg/l unless the water is particularly hard.

The good thing is that if you hire a reliable and reputable water softener supplier, they will always check the hardness of your water supply before they install the unit. They will also if your water supply is too hard that the softened water would contain sodium higher than 200 mg/l, in which case you should not drink it if you have been prescribed to a low-sodium diet.


Thus, hard water may not adversely affect your health, but it is detrimental in other ways. Hence, if your water softener supplier can assure that installing a water softening unit would not raise the sodium levels in the softened water higher than 200 mg/l, then you should consider getting one installed.

The Health Benefits of Using a Memory Foam Mattress

The memory foam mattress has been created to benefit the health of the user, thanks to a special technology developed by NASA back in the 60s. It was initially meant for aeroplane seats, but with time, the material has been used to make pillows, mattresses, office seats and even slippers.

It’s soft and absorbent nature makes it ideal for a sleeping surface, with several health advantages to boot.

The Health Benefits of Using a Memory Foam Mattress

It has been created with a special temperature sensitivity feature. This means that, as you sleep, the mattress adjusts to your body temperature, making it possible for you to combat insomnia and sleep better. For instance, if the temperatures are hot the mattress will become softer, which makes it easier for you to have a good night’s sleep.

Another great feature is its ability to align to the body, thus giving the sleeper a good sleeping posture which prevents back soreness and spinal problems in the long run. The spine is a precious part of the body that needs protection by sleeping in the ideal position. With a memory foam mattress, this essential part of the body stays well cushioned and rightfully positioned even in sleep.

The memory foam mattress eliminates the chances of sleep interruption caused by breathing problems when one’s head is not properly elevated. Buying a memory foam pillow helps with this problem, enhancing the quality and duration of your sleep.

The Health Benefits of Using a Memory Foam MattressThe fact that the memory foam mattress has been made from non-organic material makes it fit for preventing allergies. It’s made from polyurethane foam, which is completely inorganic. Organic material like cotton attracts dust mites which tend to feed on the material and dead skin. The non-organic nature of this mattress prevents organisms from thriving in your sleeping area, making sure that there is no risk of getting into contact with allergens. If you are looking to learn more about memory foam you can visit the best memory foam mattress guide online to read reviews and get valuable information about the top picks available today.

The memory foam mattress is also made in a way that it’s capable of relieving body aches and enabling the body to heal faster. The inbuilt temperature sensitivity allows it to sense the areas that are in pain since these areas have a relatively higher temperature than the rest of the body. This is a natural coping mechanism that our bodies have, to ensure that more blood is pumped to the pain area. When the mattress conforms to the different body temperatures, it selectively displaces pressure along the sleeping person’s body, thus ensuring that the body recuperates fast.

Good news for those who have partners who toss and turn in bed, since the memory foam mattress, has a special motion transfer resistance. It, therefore, gives you better, uninterrupted sleep even if the other person is constantly in motion.

This mattress used to be expensive when it was first created. Thankfully, however, advancements in technology have seen to it that the cost of making them is less expensive, so they can easily be accessed. The memory foam mattress has shown numerous health benefits over the standardized mattress, such as allergy prevention, pain alleviation and a nice way of molding to your body for the most comfortable sleep.


What Do Specialists Say About Hot Bath Health BenefitsThere’s nothing healthier than taking a bath in a hot bathtub. Other than nutrition, bathing is known to form a huge part of the human health. Since the beginning of time, only two kinds of baths exist – cold baths and hot baths.
While some people prefer taking cold showers, soaking your body in hot water comes with more health benefits. For instance, a hot bath raises the body temperature hence increasing blood circulation, detoxification and more.

Specialists Say About Hot Bath Health Benefits

Sometimes, it’s the little things that count. Specialists have stated that taking hot baths in portable hot tubs  come with more health benefits that one could possibly imagine. Whether you are stressed out or having a flu, a hot bath might be what you are looking for. There’s no need for buying expensive anti-depressants or medications. Here are some compelling health benefits of taking hot baths:

Attain a great night’s sleep

If you are having problems falling asleep at night, soaking your body in a hot bathtub is exactly what you need. Hot water is known to increase the body temperature and relaxing muscles. Therefore, when a tensed body gets a 20 minute hot bathtub shower, it will be physically and mentally relaxed.

Improved blood circulation

When you dip your body in hot water, you will be exercising your blood vessels. This is because, hot water creates physical pressure which increases your heart capacity. In simple terms, your work works faster and becomes stronger when inside hot water.

Relieving muscle pains

What Do Specialists Say About Hot Bath Health BenefitsHot baths are known to produce pain relief. This is because, the heat from the water provides an equivalent  hot pack’ that raises the temperature of aching muscles and hence blocking pain sensors.

Reduces headaches

A wide majority of headaches are as a result of constriction of blood vessels in the head. A hot bath will reduce the pressure on the blood vessels hence curing the headache.

Losing weight

Excess weight is tied to multiple health problems such as heart attacks, diabetes and more. Specialists have stated that diabetes patients who soak in a hot tub regularly reduce their blood sugar levels. To be more precise, the study found out that soaking in a hot bath for 20-30 minutes, 6 days per week will make your body lose 2kgs per month, as you can see in the blog where the author reviews about in and above ground pools to keep the surroundings healthy.

Lowers the blood pressure

Studies have proved that soaking in a hot bathtub can lower one’s blood pressure. This is ideal for people who suffer from high blood pressure. Always consult your doctor if you have a heart condition as hot baths raise the heartbeat rate.

Helps with flu and cough symptoms

Coughing is as a result of mucus accumulating in our throats. The hot steam from a hot bath dries this accumulating mucus hence reducing coughing. A 10-15 minute hot soak will also alleviate flu symptoms.


As mentioned earlier, hot baths increase blood circulation in the lymph system. This increases sweating hence eliminating toxins, viruses and bacteria from the body. With better lymph drainage, your body will be healthier than before.


Hot baths are the solution to almost any illness – whether you need to clear throat or regulate your blood pressure. Warm baths are also known to moisturize the skin and reduce stress.

Does Fresh Juice Constitute as “Natural” Foods?

Fresh juice is a healthful addition to the diet. In fact, studies show that juicing raw fruits and vegetables are a valuable addition to an already healthy diet. However, the benefits obtained from the intake of natural juices partially depend on the equipment used to blend. There are machines that remove all the fiber from the fruits or vegetables being blended.

Note that fiber that is a crucial nutrient for the digestive health is quickly obtained from fresh juice thus constituting it as a natural food. However, for those that have impaired digestion, using blenders that get rid of the fibers is not a problem. If a traditional juicer is used to blend the fruits or vegetables, the body’s GI system is given a timeout while still feeding it with all the minerals, vitamins, and phytonutrients.

Fresh juices that are made with the help of a high-speed blender retain raw food ingredients. Due to the fiber content, a slow release of nutrients is taken into the bloodstream. That means that the person drinking the juice can stay full longer. For people struggling with weight loss, this is a great substitute for a whole meal. The number of calories is reduced effectively. Fresh juice also helps in lowering blood sugar levels thereby preventing crashes and spikes that could affect energy and mood.

Not only does fresh juice stand in the place of healthy natural food, but also reduces heart disease, high blood pressure, and cancer risks. Juicing allows you to take in more vegetables and fruits in a drinkable form. This helps in boosting the intake of phytonutrients and micronutrients helping to strengthen the immune system.

For the best health benefits, it is advisable to consume the juice immediately after blending. Natural juices quickly lose their natural nutrients and develop bacterial growth if left in the open for long. Whenever one drinks fresh juice, it is almost the same case as taking an intravenous infusion of minerals, vitamins, and enzymes because they are transported directly to the system without the need for breaking them down.

Does Fresh Juice Constitute as “Natural” FoodsWith the right juicer (read about the best juicer reviews at, getting into the habit of drinking fresh juice in the morning gives the body natural energy. Given that the juice is easily digestible, it revitalizes energy levels within 20 minutes. Certain fresh juices contain vitamin C and high in folate and minerals like potassium. Various juices such as the orange juice may contain calcium. If you are purchasing, look for fresh juice that does not contain sodium or sugar. When preparing at home, you can add water to cut sugar and calories.

Vitamin C that is contained in many fresh juices is highly responsible for collagen health, a protein that keeps the skin healthy. When one consumes vitamin C rich juices, the skin is replenished, and natural beauty is restored. Also, vitamin C aids in the maintenance of hair and joint flexibility. Calcium rich fresh juices reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and they also prevent osteoporosis. Potassium rich juices also keep the blood pressure low and further prevent osteoporosis by forming osteocalcin.

Note; if the juice blended contains more fruits than vegetables, it will be high in sugar and calories. You can choose berries, apples, or kiwi to add flavor but ensure that the larger portion is constituted of organic green vegetables such as celery, spinach, kale, etc.

3 Healthy Reasons to Take Up Golf

3 Healthy Reasons to Take up Golf

Aside from being one of the most popular sports in the world, golf is also considered as one of the best sports that can give a lot of health benefits. More and more people are being attracted to play golf. In fact, there are around 32,000 golf courses in the world which can prove that a lot of people are interested with playing golf.

Aside from having a good time playing golf, you can actually acquire a lot of health benefits while playing golf according to the editors at Below is the list of the 3 healthy reasons to take up golf.

1. It serves as your cardiovascular exercise.

Golf is a sports that will require you to have a long walk. Considering that there are 18 holes in golf courses, the average size of a golf course is between 6 to 8 miles. Brisk walking towards the holes will really help you to have a good cardiovascular exercise. Also, the walk from the last hole to the clubhouse can be estimated to be around a mile. All in all, you will be able to burn 1,250 to 1,500 calories just for playing golf. In addition, carrying your own things while walking towards the holes will give you a better cardiovascular workout.

2. It is good for your bones.

3 Healthy Reasons to Take Up GolfPlaying golf can also strengthen your bones. Weightlifting and gym exercises are not the only ones that can make you have a better posture because playing golf regularly can give you the best posture you want. In order for you to strengthen your bones, you need to play golf at least twice a week. By playing twice a week, you will burn more fats and your stamina and breathing will be improved. Exercising through golf can help you create the lean muscle mass that you dream of for your body. This lean muscle mass will make your skeletal system better and healthier.

Moreover, many adults are trying to learn golf because they know that aside from having a good time with their friends, they will also be able to gain all the health benefits that golfing can offer. Some of the health benefits of playing golf are prevention of bone degradation, prevention of osteoporosis, lowering the probability of having bone cracks and a good posture for your spinal cord.

3. It will help you lower your stress level.

Businessmen and other men working in offices face a lot of stress because of their work. They tend to be stressed and their energy level is always low. One way to deal with this high stress level is through golfing. Playing golf is a nice way to relax and free your mind from all the work you need to accomplish. Men and women who are stressed with their lives just need to concentrate in playing golf and enjoy playing. You can also find a way to relax with golf by going into your backyard and start hitting balls into a golf net for 30-60 minutes just to unwind and you can learn more about that over at

Indeed, playing golf is a very good choice that you need to make. You will surely have a nice time playing while gaining health benefits. So always remember the 3 healthy reasons to take up golf and invite your friends and family for you to have a great time with them.

Understanding Plantar Fasciitis: How Heel Pain Can Be Alleviated?

Heel Pain Can Be Alleviated With Proper Footwear

On the bottom side of your foot, there exists a band of thick connective tissue which supports the arch of your foot. This band of tissue is known as the plantar fascia. It runs from the heel bone through the bones of the midfoot, to the bones of the toes. The plantar fascia may become affected in a painful degenerative process that often leads to the formation of a heel spur. This condition is known as plantar fasciitis, the jogger’s heel, or plantar fasciopathy. There are many ways to deal with the persistent irritation, but the most important is that the Plantar Fasciitis Pain can be alleviated with proper footwear.

The Main Causes of Plantar Fasciitis

The onset of plantar fasciitis has been attributed majorly to feet that have high arches or flat feet. It is also attributed to overuse of the fascia. Overuse may result from occupations that require extended and repeated long periods of standing while on the job. Overuse is also linked to sports such as running, especially when the runner uses improper footwear. Long distance runners are thus said to be at a higher risk of suffering from the problem. To fix this problem you need the  shoes with the best plantar fasciitis support for whatever activity you are doing, such as tennis, hiking, running, or just walking.

Aging and obesity are other probable causes of the joggers’ heel disorder. Obesity or being overweight tends to create a harmful pressure to the extremities, of which the fascia of the feet is inclusive. The increase in a strenuous exercise involving the feet can also expose you to a higher risk of acquiring the disorder.

The Symptoms

Understanding Plantar FasciitisThe main symptom in plantar fasciitis is pain that occurs in the bottom of the heels. The pain is normally sharp and is said to be worst after waking up from sleep or after long periods of standing or sitting which makes walking and running painful so make sure you have the right footwear. Occasionally, swelling, tightness and numbness of the heels and surrounding parts may occur. This may be accompanied by stiffness of the fascia, where clicking noises may be heard during movement. The range of movement of the heel is extremely reduced in more severe cases. As one seeks to relieve these symptoms wearing proper footwear can help alleviate Plantar Fasciitis Pain.

Detection and Diagnosis

Diagnosis of Plantar fasciitis includes a physical examination by a qualified physician, where the history of the patient is of great importance. Here a detailed history of any injuries, illnesses and symptoms affecting the feet or other related parts are established. Occupational and lifestyle information is also important in diagnosis. In many severe cases, and to rule out other causes of the disorder, other tests such as radiographic scanning, blood tests, and differential diagnosis may be conducted. Electromyography is sometimes done to evaluate the extent of nerve damage if any.

Treatment Options and Proper Footwear

Physical therapy is an important approach in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. It relieves pain, and improves blood flow through the plantar fascia, thus facilitating the healing process. Calf muscle stretching is also important in the reduction of stiffness. In some cases, therapy may involve the application of ice, heat and even having enough rest to further improve function. In severe cases, surgery may be conducted.

Other treatments include administration of drugs such as corticosteroids, along with other procedures such as iontophorensis, radiotherapy, and extracorporeal shock therapy and plantar fasciitis pain alleviated with proper footwear. There are numerous types of shoes out there on the market, comfortably padded and well designed to provide the foot with enough support in order to rid heel pain. If you suffer from heel pain, avoid walking barefoot and choose the right footwear for your feet.

How Tankless Water Heaters Can Save Water In Your Home?

Nowadays, people are being more and more conscious of energy saving alternatives and greener lifestyles. It is no secret that in the past we had the tendency to waste a lot of energy and Earth’s resources. Each and every one of us has to take action and contribute in any way that we can with preserving the environment, even from our own homes.

One way to help reduce energy waste and to save money at the same time is by switching the hot water system in our house to a tankless water heater. They can help us save up to 40 percent of the energy spent in a house to heat water. That is a great number!

Just think of how much money you can be saving if you install a tankless water heater in your house. And besides that, you will be helping the environment by reducing your energy consumption. These are a lot of advantages to thinking about.

In addition to saving money on your energy bill, you will be saving water too. Because with the tankless water heater, you will not have to wait until the water comes out hot in the shower. The heat exchange system in the tankless heater works immediately. There are different studies which say that in an average house where hot water consumption is around 41 gallons per day, savings can go up to 34 percent regarding water usage.

The way these tankless heaters work is that cold water flows through the heater and due to a heat exchange process (it can be either a gas burner or an electric one) the water comes out hot. These types of the system ensure a constant supply of hot water.

How Tankless Water Heaters Can Save Water In Your HomeAs mentioned above, there are two basic types of tankless water heater: electric and gas. The difference is that electric heaters will need a proper electric installation and are 99 percent more efficient than the traditional storage water heater. On the other hand, gas powered heaters need to be vented and are about 23 percent more efficient.

This is definitely not a new invention. Cars have the same system to cool their engines. What we need to do is encourage ourselves and our neighbors to go tankless.

Now if you have decided to buy a tankless water heater for your house start with reading some tankless water heater reviews and then compile a list of  what your needs might be and from there you have a criteria to choose from. Here are some things you need to consider:

Demand: will you need hot water in one room of your house? or the entire house?

Type: electric or gas?

Location: tankless heaters must be about 50 feet from a power source. They can be installed in an exterior or interior wall.

Life expectancy: they last around 20 years.

Installation: A professional must be hired in order to do a correct installation and to avoid any future damages to the heater.

As you can see from above, installing a tankless water heater system in your house is a great way to make your contribution to the planet, by reducing the amount of water you spend and the energy needed to make it hot. There are other ways to help Earth from your own home, but a tankless water heater is an excellent way to start.